Morphological variations and phylogenetic analysis of Oryzias nigrimas Kottelat, 1990 (Rice fish) from Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia




Abstract. Serdiati N, Arfiati D, Widodo MS, Lelono TJ, Ndobe S, Saranga R. 2020. Morphological variations and phylogenetic analysis of Oryzias nigrimas Kottelat, 1990 (Rice fish) from Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 882-888. Rice fish (Oryzias nigrimas Kottelat, 1990) is a well-studied species endemic to Lake Poso, Sulawesi and identified as scarce. This study aims to identify the Rice fish of Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi based on morphological characters (15 morphometric characters and 5 meristic counts) and phylogenetic analysis using maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on mtDNA, CO1 gene. Based on the morphological analysis, it was showed that the meristic counts show significantly different only on the lateral line scale. However, the morphometric measurements show significantly different characteristics on postorbital distance, body depth, and length of jaw. Our phylogenetic analysis also showed that our samples are indeed a species of O. nigrimas. We suggest that the endemicity of this Rice fish on Lake Poso is greatly influenced by the well-maintained genetic structure of the population.


April J, Hanner RH, Dion?Côté AM, Bernatchez L. 2012. Glacial cycles as an allopatric speciation pump in north?eastern American freshwater fishes. Mol Ecol 22: 409–422.
Brraich OS, Akhter S. 2015. Morphometric characters and meristic counts of a fish, Crossocheilus latius latius (Hamilton-Buchanan) from Ranjit Sagar Wetland, India. Int J Fish Aquac Stud 2(5): 260-265.
Bingpeng X. 2018. DNA barcoding for identification of fish species in the Taiwan Strait. PLoS One 13(6): 98-109.
DeWoody JA, Avise JC. 2000. Microsatellite variation in marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes compared with other animals. J Fish Biol 56: 461–473.
Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 3(5): 294-299.
Fakunmoju FA, Akintola SL, Ijimakinde B. 2014. Comparative Analysis of the Morphometric and Meristic Character of Lutjanidae from Lekki and Badagry Lagoons in Lagos State Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 7(1): 81-88
Hall TA 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nuc Acids Symp Ser 12: 95-98.
Holden MJ, Raitt DFS. 1974. Manual of fisheries science. Part 2-Methods of resource investigation and their application. FAO, Rome
Ikpeme EV, Ekerette EE, Udensi OU, Ozoje MO. 2017. Assessment of Morphological Variation in Wild and Cultured Populations of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus). J Adv Biol Biotechnol 13: 1-10.
Inoue K, Takei Y . 2003. Asian medaka fishes offer new models for studying mechanisms of seawater adaptation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochem Mol Biol 136(4): 635-645.
Kimura M. 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111-120.
Kim H, Lee W, Lee S. 2010. Morphometric relationship, phylogenetic correlation, and character evolution in the species-rich genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae). PloSOne 5(7): e11608.
Kress WJ, Erickson DL. 2012. DNA barcodes: methods and protocols. In DNA Barcodes 3-8.
Kumar S, Stecher G, Li M, Knyaz C, Tamura K . 2018. MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Mol Biol Evol 35(6): 1547-1549.
Lin Y, Gao Z, Zhan A. 2015. Introduction and use of non?native species for aquaculture in China: status, risks and management solutions. Rev Aquacult 7(1): 28-58.
Liu J, Jiang J, Song S, Tornabene L, Chabarria R, Naylor G, Li C. 2017. Multilocus DNA barcoding - Species Identification with Multilocus Data. Sci Rep 7(1): 16601.
Mandagi IF, Mokodongan DF, Tanaka R, Yamahira K. 2018. A New Riverine Ricefish of the Genus Oryzias (Beloniformes, Adrianichthyidae) from Malili, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Copeia 106(2): 297-304.
Martinez AS, Willoughby JR, and Christie MR. 2018. Genetic diversity in fishes is influenced by habitat type and life?history variation. Ecol Evol 8(23): 12022–12031.
Marzouk Z, Chenuil A, Aurelle D, Said K. 2016. Genetic diversity and population structure of the banded Murex, Hexaplextrunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait. J Res Biol Sci 2(201): 8-12.
Magtoon W, Termvidchakorn A. 2009. A Revised Taxonomic Account of Ricefish Oryzias (Beloniformes; Adrianichthyidae), in Thailand, Indonesia and Japan. Tropical Natural History 9(1): 35-68.
Panprommin D, Soontornprasit K, Tuncharoen S, Pithakpol S, Keereelang J. 2019. DNA barcodes for the identification of species diversity infish from KwanPhayao, Thailand. J Asia-Pac Biodivers 12: 382-89.
Parenti LR. 2008. A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of rice?shes, Oryzias and relatives (Beloniformes, Adrianichthyidae). Zool J Linn Soc 154(3): 494–610.
Parenti LR, Hadiaty, RK, Lumbantobing D, Herder F. 2013. Two New Ricefishes of the GenusOryzias(Atherinomorpha: Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae) Augment the Endemic Freshwater Fish Fauna of Southeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Copeia 2013(3): 403–409.
Quilang JP, Basiao ZU, Pagulayan RC, Roderos, RR, Barrios EB (2007) Meristic and morphometric variation in the silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), from three lakes in the Philippines. J Appl Ichthyol 23(5): 561-567.
Seebacher F, Webster MM, James RS, Tallis J, and Ward AJW. 2016. Morphological differences between habitats are associated with physiological and behavioural trade-offs in stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). R Soc Open Sci 3(6): 160316.
Shima A, Mitani H. 2004. Medaka as a research organism: past, present and future. Mech Dev 121(7-8): 599-604.
Simon KD, Bakar Y, Temple SE, Mazlan AG. 2010. Morphometric and meristic variation in two congeneric archer fishes Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton 1822) and Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 11(11): 871-879.
Takehana Y, Naruse K, Sakaizumi M. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the medaka fish genus Oryzias (Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 36(2): 417-428.
Wang JF, Jiang LY, Qiao GX. 2011. Use of a mitochondrial COI sequence to identify species of the subtribe Aphidina (Hemiptera, Aphididae). ZooKeys 122: 1–17.
Wark AR, Peichel CL. 2010. Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations. J Exp Biol 213(1): 108-117.
Wawrowski A, Gerlach F, Hankeln T, Burmester T (2011) Changes of globin expression in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) in response to acute and chronic hypoxia. J Comp Physiol B 181(2): 199-208.
Viswambharan D, Pavan-Kumar A, Singh DP, Jaiswar AK, Chakraborty SK, Nair JR, Lakra WS. 2015. DNA barcoding of gobiid fishes (Perciformes, Gobioidei). Mitochondrial DNA 26(1): 15-9.
Xing B, Lin H , Zhang Z, Wang C,Wang Y, Wang J. 2018. DNA barcoding for identification of fish species in the Taiwan Strait. PloseOne. 13(6): e0198109
Yang, Z. 1994. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation from DNA sequences with variable rates over sites: approximate methods. J Mol Evol 39(3): 306-314.
Zhang J, Hanner R. 2012. Molecular Approach to the Identification of Fish in the South China Sea. PLoSOne 7(2): e30621.

Most read articles by the same author(s)