The role of coastal biodiversity conservation on sustainability and environmental awareness in mangrove ecosystem of southern Malang, Indonesia




Abstract. Abidin Z, Setiawan B, Muhaimin AW, Shinta A. 2021. The role of coastal biodiversity conservation on sustainability and environmental awareness in mangrove ecosystem of southern Malang, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 648-658. Southern coast of Malang, East Java, Indonesia has several mangrove ecosystems used for ecotourism, such as Clungup Mangrove Conservation Tiga Warna (CMC Tiga Warna). This area has consistently implemented ecotourism principles. Previously, it was assumed to be vulnerable from the damage due to differences in environmental awareness of ecotourists and local communities. This study aims to (i) describe the strategy of coastal biodiversity conservation to enhance environmental awareness and its sustainability; (ii) analyze the role of conservation on sustainability and environmental awareness, with sustainability as a mediating variable between conservation and environmental awareness. Data analysis was conducted with descriptive and Warp Partial Least Square (WarpPLS). The results indicate that empirical facts of conservation, sustainability, and environmental awareness in CMC Tiga Warna are relevant to the result of statistical analysis. Conservation is believed to form the environmental awareness of ecotourists and local communities and to maintain the sustainability of ecotourism destinations. In addition, the sustainability of ecotourism destinations serves as an effective mediator between conservation and environmental awareness, along with the modeling of environmental awareness enhancement in conservation-based coastal ecotourism. The proposed model explains that sustainability and environmental awareness variances are 23% and 25%, respectively. In summary, Destination Marketing and Management Organization of CMC Tiga Warna ecotourism is believed to improve environmental awareness of ecotourist and local communities by strengthening coastal biodiversity conservation programs in ecotourism areas and in maintaining sustainability.


Clombo MG, Delmastro M. 2002. How Effective Are Technology Incubators?: Evidence from Italy. Res. Policy 31 (7): 1103–22.
Eunike A, Hardiningtyas D, Kartika SI, Andronicus. 2018. Sustainability Analysis of Beach and Mangrove Tourism in Clungup Beach, Malang Regency of East Java. ECSOFiM Econ. Soc. Fish. 06 (01): 1–13.
Ferdinand A. 2002. Structural Equation Modelling dalam Penelitian Manajemen: Aplikasi Model-model Rumit dalam Penelitian untuk Tesis Magister dan Disertasi Doktor. BP Universitas Diponegoro.
Frey N, George R. 2010. Responsible Tourism Management: The Missing Link between Business Owners’ Attitudes and Behaviour in the Cape Town Tourism Industry. Tour. Manag. 31 (5): 621–28.
Gao Y, Mattila A, Lee S. 2016. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Intentions for Environment-Friendly Initiatives in Hospitality Research. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. 54: 107–15.
Garraway J, 2008. Ecotourism as a Means of Community Development: The Case of the Indigenous Populations of the Greater Caribbean. J. Tour. Res. 1 (1): 11–20.
Ghozali I. 2018. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program IBM SPSS 25. (Edisi 9). Semarang: BP Universitas Diponegoro.
Harahab N, Riniwati H, Abidin Z. 2018. The Vulnerability Analysis of Mangrove Forest Status as a Tourism Area. Ecol. Environ. Conserv. 24 (2).
Husamah, Hudha AM. 2018. Evaluasi Implementasi Prinsip Ekowisata Berbasis Masyarakat dalam Pengelolaan Clungup Mangrove Conservation Sumbermanjing Wetan, Malang. J. Pengelolaan Sumberd. Alam dan Lingkung. (Journal Nat. Resour. Environ. Manag. 8 (1): 86–95.
Iniesta-Bonillo MA, Sánchez-Fernández R, Jiménez-Castillo D. 2016. Sustainability, Value, and Satisfaction: Model Testing and Cross-Validation in Tourist Destinations. J. Bus. Res. 69 (11): 5002–7.
Intansari SK, Harahab N. 2018. Comparative Benefit Value Analysis of Ecotourism and Masstourism. ECSOFiM Econ. Soc. Fish. 05 (02): 155–166.
Jamrozy U. 2007. Marketing of Tourism: A Paradigm Shift toward Sustainability. Int. J. Cult. Tour. Hosp. Res. 1 (2): 117–30.
Kusumawati A, Utomo HS, Suharyono, Sunarti. 2019. Effects of Sustainability on WoM Intention and Revisit Intention, with Environmental Awareness as a Moderator. Manag. Environ. Qual. An Int. J.
Martínez YC, Baños MR, Monroy HC. 2018. Ecotourism as a Path to Sustainable Development in an Isolated Magic Town. J. Tour. Anal. 25 (1): 23–38.
Mathew PV, Sreejesh S. 2017. Impact of Responsible Tourism on Destination Sustainability and Quality of Life of Community in Tourism Destinations. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag. 31: 83–89.
McInnes RJ. 2018. Sustainable Development Goals. In The Wetland Book: I: Structure and Function, Management, and Methods.
MMAF. 2018. Yearly Report of Ministry of Marine and Fisheries Indonesia. Jakarta.
Riniwati H, Harahab N, Abidin Z. 2019. A Vulnerability Analysis of Coral Reefs in Coastal Ecotourism Areas for Conservation Management. Diversity 11 (7).
Ross S, Wall G. 1999. Ecotourism: Towards Congruence between Theory and Practice. Tour. Manag. 20: 123–32.
Sadikin PN, Arifin HS, Pramudya B, Mulatsih S. 2017. Carrying Capacity to Preserve Biodiversity on Ecotourism in Mount Rinjani National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (3): 978–89.
Sharma K, Bansal M. 2013. Environmental Consciousness, its Antecedents and Behavioural Outcomes. J. Indian Bus. Res. 5 (3): 198–214.
Solimun, Fernandes AAR, Nurjannah. 2017. Metode Stastika Multivariat: Permodelan Persamaan Structural (SEM) Pendekatan WarpPLS. Malang: UB Press.
Streiner DL. 2003. Starting at the Beginning: An Introduction to Coefficient Alpha and Internal Consistency. J. Pers. Assess.
Sugiyono. 2017. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: PT Alfabet.
UU No. 5 1990. Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Hayati dan Ekosistemnya.
Wibawa MI, Budiasa IGS. 2018. Pengaruh Kebijakan Pemerintah, Partisipasi Masyarakat dan Kewirausahaan terhadap Kualitas Destinasi Wisata Pura Taman Ayun. E-Jurnal Ekon. dan Bisnis Univ. Udayana 7 (6): 1667–94.