Inventory and identification of banana cultivar and diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens in West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia




Abstract. Henuk JBD, Kadja DH, Mau YS. 2020. Inventory and identification of banana cultivars and diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens in West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Trop Drylands 4: 10-16. Banana is one of the most important horticulture crops in West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. But the productivity of this crop is still low due to many factors, one of which is diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. There are many banana cultivars in West Timor but information on their cultivar identity and the diseases they suffer are absent. The present study aimed at: (i) identifying the banana cultivars in West Timor, (ii) assessing the symptoms of the diseases on the banana cultivars, and (iii) identifying the pathogens causing the diseases. The sampling of research location was done purposively while sampling of banana plantation was using a snowball method. Banana cultivar showing bacterial blood and fungal disease symptoms were further examined to isolate and to identify the pathogens based on the pathogen morphological characteristics. Twenty-one banana cultivars were found in West Timor, and were included in three genomic groups, i.e., ABB, AAB, and AA. Symptoms and signs of bacterial infection were only found on Pisang Kepok. Two bacteria isolates and soil samples were further cultured on specific and general bacterial media and also subjected to gram staining, all of which revealed that the bacterial isolates were not the causal bacterial pathogens of Blood disease or banana Xanthomonas wilt. Thus, no blood disease or banana Xanthomonas wilt is present in West Timor at the moment. Various and abundant fungal disease symptoms were exhibited by most of the cultivars. Banana diseases caused by fungal pathogens included Cordana Spot disease (Cordana musae), Anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum musae), Sigatoka disease (Mychosphaerella sp.), Leaf spot disease (Phyllachora musicola), Curvularia spot disease (Curvularia sp.) and Freckle disease (Phyllosticta musarum).



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