Unexpected patterns of genetic connectivity in Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskål, 1775) around Sulawesi, Indonesia




Abstract. Umar W, Tassakka ACMAR, Barber PH, Jompa J. 2019. Unexpected patterns of genetic connectivity in Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskål, 1775) around Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 20: 2744-2749. Sulawesi is a strategic area for the biological networks of marine organisms, especially for Scleractinian corals. Sulawesi is located centrally in Indonesia and influenced by Pacific and Indian Ocean currents and shown in unique biodiversity patterns. However, research in this region is very limited. The wide distribution and lack of information on dispersal and connectivity make Lobophyllia corymbosa an exciting candidate in this study for genetic connectivity at the heart of the Indonesian Coral Triangle Area (ICTA), using Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. Sampling sites (Palu, Mamuju, Sinjai, and Luwuk Banggai) with different coral fragments were collected from each site, DNA extracted, and mitochondrial COI gene was amplified. The results of the analysis were unexpected, and we hypothesise that the observed pattern was due to the evolution of different lineages within this region. The distance index and genetic diversity showed a close relationship between Mamuju and Luwuk Banggai, while Sinjai and Palu had a different genetic pattern. The global current patterns, complicated geography, and habitat condition could lead to such an outcome. Hard coral larvae arriving in an area might bypass a number of possible "stepping stones", resulting in unique patterns and leading to unexpected genetic connections within and between areas.


Arlyza I and Borsa P. 2008. Geographic Structure of Masked Stingray in The Indo-Malay-Papua Archipelago. Conservation Biology. 22(5):1255-1266.

Barber PH, Palumbi SR, Erdmann MV and Moosa MK. 2000. Biogeography. A Marine Wallace's line. Nature. 406, (6797):692–693.

Barber PH, Moosa MK, and Palumbi SR. 2002. Rapid Recovery of Genetic Diversity of Stomatopod Populations on Krakatau: Temporal and Spatial Scales of Marine Larval Dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 269 (1500), 1591–1597. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2026.

Barber PH and Boyce SL. 2006. Estimating Diversity of Indo-Pacific Coral Reef Stomatopods Through DNA Barcoding of Stomatopod Larvae. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273(1597), 2053–2061. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3540.

Barber PH, Cheng S, Erdmann M, and Tenggardjaja K. 2011. Evolution and Conservation of Marine Biodiversity in The Coral Triangle: Insights from Stomatopod Crustacea. Crustacean Issues,19, 129–156.

Beardmore JA. 1983. Extinction, Survival, and Genetic Variation. On Genetics and Conservation. Schonewald-cox, CMS, Chambers, M, Macbryde B and Thomas WL (Editor). The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. London.

Bellwood and Meyer. 2009. Searching for Heat in A Marine Biodiversity Hotspot. Journal of Biogeography. 36, 569–576.

Botsford LW, White JW, Coffroth MA, Paris CB, Planes S, Shearer TL, Thorrold SR, and Jones GP. 2009. Connectivity and Resilience of Coral Reef Metapopulations in Marine Protected Areas: Matching Empirical Efforts to Predictive Needs. Coral Reefs. 28:327–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-009-0466-z.

Burke L, Elizabeth S, and Mark S. 2002. Terumbu Karang yang Terancam di Asia Tenggara. World Resources Institute. USA.

Carpenter KE, Barber PH, Crandall ED, et al. 2011. Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management. Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 2011, Article ID 396982, 14 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/396982.

Cesar H, Burke, and Pet-Soede L. 2003. The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation. Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting (CEEC).

Chiu Y, Bor H, Tan M, Lin H, and Jean C. 2013. Phylogeography and Genetic Differentiation Among Populations of The Moon Turban Snail Lunella granulata gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae). International Journal of Molecular Sciences.14:9062- 9079.10.3390/ijms14059062.

Cho W and Shank MT. 2010. Incongruent Patterns of Genetic Connectivity Among Four Ophiuroid Species with Differing Coral Host Specificity on North Atlantic Seamounts. Marine Ecology. ISSN 0173-9565.doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2010.00395.x.

Coexploration. 2017. Life Cycle Story. [online]. http://www.coexploration.org.

Clark MR, Rowden RT, Schlacher T, Williams A, Consalvey M, Stocks KI, Rogers AD, O’Hara TD. et al. 2010. The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, Function, and Human Impacts. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2, 253–278.10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-081109.

Crandall ED, Taffel JR, and Barber PH. 2010. High Gene Flow due to Pelagic Larval Dispersal among South Pacific Archipelagos in Two Amphidromous Gastropods (Neritomorpha: Neritidae). 104, pages 563–572.

DeBoer TS and Barber PH. 2010. Isolation and Characterization of 9 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for the Endangered Boring Giant Clam (Tridacna crocea) and Cross-Priming Testing in Three Other Tridacnid Species. Conserv Genet Resour. 2:353–356. doi: 10.1007/s12686-010-9249-7.

Excoffier L, Laval G, and Schneider S. 2005. Arlequin ver. 3.0: An Integrated Software Package for Population Genetics Data Analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online 1:47-50.

Fukami H, Budd A, Paulay G, sole-Cava A, Chen CA, Iwao K, and Kwlton N. 2004. Conventional Taxonomy Obscurres Deep Divergence Between Pacific and Atlantic Corals. Nature 427:832:834. 10.1038/nature02339.

Gordon AL and Fine RA. 1996. Pathways of Water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Indonesian Seas. Nature. 379: 146-149. doi:10.1038/379146a0.

Hedgecock D, Barber PH, and Edmands S. 2007. Genetic Approaches to Measuring Connectivity. Oceanography. Vol. 20, pp. 70–79, 2007.

Hemond EM, and Vollmer SV. 2010. Genetic Diversity and Connectivity in the Threatened Staghorn Coral (Acropora cervicornis) in Florida. PLoS ONE 5(1): e8652. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008652.

Huang D, Licuanana WY, Baird AH, and Fukami H. 2011. Cleaning Up The ‘Bigmessidae’: Molecular Phylogeny of Scleractinian Corals from Faviidae, Merulinidae, Pectiniidae and Trachyphylliidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 471-2148/11/3.DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-11-37.

Kimura M. 1980. A Simple Method for Estimating Evolutionary Rate of Base Substitutions Through Comparative Studies of Nucleotide Sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16: 111-120.

Kochzius M and Nuryanto A. 2008. Strong Genetic Population Structure in the Boring Giant Clam, Tridacna crocea, Across the Indo-Malay Archipelago: Implications Related to Evolutionary Processes and Connectivity. Molecular Ecology. 17:3775–3787. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03803.x.

Kool J, Moilanen A, and Treml E. 2013. Population Connectivity: Recent Advances and New Perspectives, Landscape Ecol., 28, 165–185.

Kortschak RD, Samuel G, Saint R, and Miller DJ. 2003. EST Analysis of the Cnidarian Acropora millepora Reveals Extensive Gene Loss and Rapid Sequence Divergence in The Model Invertebrates. Current Biology. 2003;13:2190–2195. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2003.11.030.

Raynal J, Crandall E, Barber PH, Mahardika G, Ablan L, Carmen M, and Carpenter EK. 2014. Basin Isolation and Oceanographic Features Influencing Lineage Divergence in The Humbug Damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus) in The Coral Triangle. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90. 513-532.10.5343/bms.2013.1017.http://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1017.

Richmond R, and Hunter C. 1990. Reproduction and Recruitment of Corals: Comparisons Among the Caribbean, the Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea. Marine Ecology-progress Series-Mar Ecol-Progr Ser. 60. 185-203. 10.3354/meps060185.

Roberts CM, McClean CJ, Veron JEN, Hawkins JP, Allen GR, McAllister DE, Mittermeier CG, Schueler FW, et al. 2002. Marine Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities for Tropical Reefs. Science Vol 295: 1280-1284.

Rogers AD. 1994. The Biology of Seamounts. Advances in Marine Biology. 30, 305–350.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(08)60065-6.

Librado P and Rozas J. 2009. DnaSP v5: A Software for Comprehensive Analysis of DNA Polymorphism Data Bioinformatics. 25; 1451-1452.

Shank TM. 2010. Seamounts: Deep-Ocean Laboratories of Faunal Connectivity, Evolution, and Endemism. Oceanography, 23, 108-122. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.65.
Starger CJ, Barber PH, Ambariyanto, and Baker AC. 2010. Coral Reefs. 29: 547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-010-0609-2.

Tamura K and Nei M. 1993. Estimation of the Number of Nucleotide Substitutions in the Control Region of Mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 10:512-526.

Tamura K. Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, and Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 2725-2729.

Timm J, Kochzius M, Madduppa HH, Neuhaus AI, and Dohna T. 2017. Small Scale Genetic Population Structure of Coral Reef Organisms in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Front. Mar. Sci. 4:294. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00294.

Treml E, Roberts J, Chao Y, Halpin PN, Possingham H, and Riginos C. 2012. Reproductive Output and Duration of the Pelagic Larval Stage Determine Seascape-Wide Connectivity of Marine Populations, Integr. Comp. Biol., 52(4), 525–537.

Turak E, Sheppard C, and Wood E. 2014. Lobophyllia corymbosa. [online] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T133551A54282200. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T133551A54282200.en.

Van der Ven RM, Triest L, De Ryck DJR, Mwaura JM, Mohammed MS, and Kochzius M. 2016. Population Genetic Structure of The Stony Coral Acropora tenuis Shows High but Variable Connectivity in East Africa. J. Biogeogr., 43: 510–519. doi:10.1111/jbi.12643.

Vollmer SV, and Palumbi SR. 2007. Restricted Gene Flow in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis: Implications for the Recovery for Endangered Reefs. Journal of Heredity. Vol. 98, Issue 1. 40–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esl057.

Wood S, Paris CB, Ridgwell A, and Hendy EJ. 2014. Modelling Dispersal and Connectivity of Broadcast Spawning Corals at the Global Scale. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23: 1–11. doi:10.1111/geb.12101.

Most read articles by the same author(s)